Commonly encountered Military Surplus Rifles

And a few Military Style Rifles Produced for the Civilian Market

Please note that this page is still underconstruction and is by no means complete.

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British Commonwealth Bolt Action Rifles

Lee Enfield Rifle No.4 Mark 1

This was the primary infantry rifle of the British Army during World War 2. Adopted in November 1939 this rifle incorporated a number of improvements over the then standard Lee-Enfield Rifle No. 1, Mark III. These included number of manufacturing shortcuts, a heavier barrel, and aperture sights. In addition the fearsome 18 inch bayonet seen on the earlier No. 1 was replaced by an 8 inch spike socket bayonet. The battle sight acts as a ghost ring sight which allows for quick acquisition of targets even at night . That combined with the larger than normal magazine capacity (10 rounds), the fast operating Enfield action combine to make this perhaps the best bolt action rifle fielded by any army in World War II

Rifle No. 4 Mark 1
Year Introduced 1939
Country Britain
Weight (lbs) 8.8
Barrel Length (inches) 25.2
Overall Length (inches) 44.5
Magazine Capacity 10 round staggered box
Action Type Bolt Action Turn bolt
Sights Blade front sight with protective ears. Rear aperture battle sight and leaf aperture sight adjustable from 200-1300 yards
Cartridge 303 British
Bullet Weight (grains) 174
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2440
Effective Range (yards) 400

Lee Enfield No.1 Mk 3

The No.1 Mk 3 was the primary battle rifle of the British Empire during World War 1. Also known as the SMLE(Short, magazine Lee Enfield). It was a shortened version of the previous lee enfield. . To make up for the reduced length The British Military Leadership which was still enamored with the idea of bayonet fighting supplied a bayonet with an 18 inch long blade . This rifle was also equipped with a magazine cutoff and volley sights

No.1 Mk 3
Year Introduced 1907
Country Britain
Weight (lbs) 8.9
Barrel Length (inches) 25.2
Overall Length (inches) 44.5
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Front Blade, Rear tangent
Cartridge 303 British
Bullet Weight (grains) 174
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2440
Effective Range (yards) 400

Lee Enfield No.5 Mk 1

This was a shortened version of No.4 Mark I rifle with flash hider and rubber butt pad designed for jungle fighting. The shorter barrel and the lighter weight generated a lot more recoil and muzzle blast. The No.5 is also known as the Jungle carbine and has become so popular that some companies are actually making copies of it. Although these copies are generally good shooters they have little collector value.

No.5 Mk 1
Year Introduced 1944
Country Britain
Weight (lbs) 7.2
Barrel Length (inches) 18.7
Overall Length (inches) 39.1
Magazine Capacity 10 round staggered box
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Rear aperture
Cartridge 303 British
Bullet Weight (grains) 174
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2200
Effective Range 300 yards

No.1 Mk 3 *

The No.1 Mk 3 * was essentially the same as the No. 1 Mark 3 but without the volley sight and magazine cutoff. It was widely used during World War 2. These rifles are very common having been manufactured in Britain, Canada, Australia, and India.

No.1 Mk 3 *
Year Introduced
Country Britain
Weight (lbs) 8.9
Barrel Length (inches) 25.2
Overall Length (inches) 44.5
Magazine Capacity 10 round staggered box
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights
Cartridge 303 British
Bullet Weight (grains) 174
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2440
Effective Range (yards) 400

Ishapore Enfield 2A1

In the 1960's when the Indian government adopted the 7.62 Nato cartridge as their standard military round, a number of No. 1 Mark 3 rifles were rechambered to 7.62 Nato for use by police and reserve forces. The 10 round magazine designed for the rimmed 303 catridge was replaced with a 12 round magazine designed for the rimless 7.62 NATO cartridge.

Ishapore 2A1
Year Introduced Unknown
Country India
Weight (lbs) 8.9
Barrel Length (inches) 25.2
Overall Length (inches) 44.5
Magazine Capacity 12 round staggered box
Action Type Bolt Action Turn Bolt
Sights
Cartridge 7.62 x 51 mm Nato
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2750
Effective Range (yards) 400

Pattern 14 Enfield

A derivation of the Model 98 Mauser it differs from the Mauser 98 in that it cocks on closing rather than opening. The original intention was replace the Lee Enfield SMLE with this rifle and the 303 British Cartridge with a new flat shooting rimless cartridge firing a bullet of 0.276 inch diameter. Development of the new round ceased when World War one started. Production capacity for the Pattern 14 was used to produce the rifle in the standard 303 British Cartridge to meet the demands of war.

Pattern 14 Enfield
Year Introduced 1914
Country Britain
Weight (lbs) 9.6
Barrel Length (inches) 26
Overall Length (inches) 46.3
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Rear aperture sight
Cartridge 303 British
Bullet Weight (grains) 174
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2400
Effective Range (yards) 400

French MAS 36

This awkward looking bolt action rifle was a vast improvement over previous French designs. The action is strong but it is considered to be a mediocre rifle by many. A 13 inch knitting needle like spike bayonet is housed in a tube under the barrel. Bullet diameter is 0.307 inch. Some of these rifles have been rechambered to 308 Winchester.

MAS 36
Year Introduced 1936
Country France
Weight (lbs)
Barrel Length (inches) 19.1
Overall Length (inches) 40.1
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Rear aperture sight
Cartridge 7.5 x 54mm French M1929C
Bullet Weight (grains) 139
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2700
Effective Range 400 yards

1890 French Cavalry Carbine

Also known as the Berthier Carbine it was used by French Calvary and artillery units. The three round magazine capacity was an attempt by the French Military to force French soldiers to make every shot count. It was an unreasonable expectation and future rifles would have five round magazines.

1890 Cavalry Carbine
Year Introduced 1890
Country France
Weight (lbs) 6.6
Barrel Length (inches) 17.9
Overall Length (inches) 37.2
Magazine Capacity 3 round box magazine
Action Type Bolt action turn bolt
Sights
Cartridge 8 mm Lebel
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range 300

M-1886 Lebel

This rifle was state of the art in it's day. This was the first military rifle to use smokeless powder, which increased the muzzle velocity and reduced the amount of smoke generated by the cartridge.

An interesting feature of this rifle is that the cartridges are stored in a tubular magazine below the barrel rather than in a box type magazine used in later european military rifles. The user must be careful to use round nose bullets or the special spire point military ammunition which has a groove circling the primer on the base of the cartridge. Failure to do so will likely result in the detonation of cartridges in the magazine when the pointed end of a bullet strikes the primer of the cartridge in front of it. Another thing to be aware of it that more modern Lebel ammunition may create chamber pressures that exceed the safe operating pressures of this gun. This rifle was also was equipped with a 20.5 inch cruciform blade bayonet that looked like a very long knitting needle.

M-1886 Lebel
Year Introduced 1886
Country France
Weight (lbs) 9.5
Barrel Length (inches) 31.5
Overall Length (inches) 51
Magazine Capacity 8
Action Type Bolt Action Turn bolt
Sights
Cartridge 8mm Lebel
Bullet Weight (grains) 216
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2350
Effective Range 300

German Mauser 98 Action

This is the most influential bolt action rifle design of all time. Incorporating a number of safety features that were not found on previous Mauser designs It has been copied by many countries and it is still used in sporting rifles to this day. The most notable features are ;

To load, open the bolt by pulling the bolt handle up and back.
Insert a stripper clip of 5 cartridges in clip guides or load rounds singly into the magazine.
Then push the bolt handle forward and down. Close the bolt.

Misfires

This rifle cocks on opening. In the event of a misfire wait at least 10 seconds before touching the bolt handle. Lift the bolt handle but do not pull the bolt back. This will recock the rifle. Push the bolt handle down again. If the cartridge does not go off after the second try, wait at least 10 seconds before removing the cartridge. Dispose of the dud round properley

German Mauser 98

The primary infantry weapon of the German Army in World War One.

Mauser 98
Year Introduced 1898
Country Germany
Weight (lbs) 9
Barrel Length (inches) 29.2
Overall Length (inches) 49.5
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Barley Corn Front sight , open V rear tangent sight adjustable from 400 - 2000 meters
Cartridge 8 mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains) 198

Mauser 98 K (Karbiner)

Known in German as the Karbiner 98 kurz, this was the basic infantry weapon issued to Nazi Soldiers throughout World War Two.

98 K
Year Introduced
Country Germany
Weight (lbs) 9
Barrel Length (inches) 23.4
Overall Length (inches) 43.5
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turn bolt
Sights Rear leaf sight with V notch from 100 to 2000 meters Front V blade
Cartridge 8 mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains) 155
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2800
Effective Range 400 yards
Gew 33/40
Year Introduced 1940
Country Germany
Weight (lbs) 7.9
Barrel Length (inches) 19.3
Overall Length (inches) 39.1
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights
Cartridge 8 mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range

Modified Czech model 33. It was Issued mainly to German mountain troops during World War Two.

Czech VZ 24 Mauser

Czech VZ 24
Year Introduced 1924
Country Czechoslavakia
Weight (lbs) 9
Barrel Length (inches) 23.2
Overall Length (inches) 43.3
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Tangent rear, barley corn front sight
Cartridge
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range

Yugoslav M1948

Yugoslav M1948
Year Introduced 1948
Country Yugoslavia
Weight (lbs) 8.6
Barrel Length (inches) 23.3
Overall Length (inches) 42.9
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Tangent rear sight, Hooded front sight
Cartridge 7.92 x 57
Bullet Weight (grains) 198
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2600
Effective Range (yards) 400

M1909 Argentine Mauser

Based on the Mauser 98 action these rifles were made in Germany for the Argentinian Government.

M1909 Argentine Mauser
Year Introduced 1909
Country Argentina
Weight (lbs) 9.2
Barrel Length (inches) 29.1
Overall Length (inches) 49.2
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Inverted v front, tangent rear.
Cartridge 7.65 x 54mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains) 154
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2755
Effective Range

Greek M 1903 Mannlicher Schoenauer

M 1903 Mannlicher Schoenauer
Year Introduced
Country Greece
Weight (lbs) 8.3
Barrel Length (inches) 28.5
Overall Length (inches) 43.3
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights .
Cartridge 6.5 x 54 mm Greek
Bullet Weight (grains) 159
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2250
Effective Range 400 yards
Mannlicher Schoenauer Carbine
Year Introduced
Country Greece
Weight (lbs) 7.3
Barrel Length (inches) 19.7
Overall Length (inches) 39.4
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights .
Cartridge 6.5 x 54 mm Greek
Bullet Weight (grains) 159
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2250
Effective Range 400 yards

Made in the Steyr Arms Factory in Austria under contract to the Greek Government. Will be marked "Steyr 1903" Turn bolt with 5 round Rotary Magazine that can be loaded with single rounds or using stripper clips

Moisin Nagant Rifles

These are solid reliable rifles. Manufactured by Russia, Finland and China. Sights on these rifles are crude and the bolt operation is a little awkward. The 7.62 x 54 Russian is a ballistically good cartridge about on par with the 308 Winchester. Carbine versions of this rifle will have a very stiff recoil. When chambered for the cartridge it was designed for these rifles are quite safe. However to make them more saleable on the U.S. market many of these rifles were rechambered by reaming out the existing barrel to fire the U.S. 30-06 cartridge. Unfortunately too much metal is removed in such an operation and those rifles should be considered unsafe to fire.

1891 Mosin Nagant

1891 Mosin Nagant
Year Introduced 1891
Country Russia
Weight (lbs) 9.75
Barrel Length (inches) 31.5
Overall Length (inches) 51.8
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Blade front sight . Tangent rear sight with V notch.
Cartridge 7.62 x 54 Rimmed Russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2890
Effective Range

Features an octagonal receiver. Rifles were also made by contract by Remington and Westinghouse but were never delivered because of the October 1917 revolution in Russia. Fortunately for Remington the U.S. Government bailed them out by buying the rifles which were either delivered to the White Russians or sold on the American surplus market.

1891/30 Mosin Nagant
Year Introduced 1930
Country Russia
Weight (lbs) 8.9
Barrel Length (inches) 31.5
Overall Length (inches) 51.8
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Blade front sight protected by a hood . Tangent rear sight with V notch.
Cartridge 7.62 x 54 Rimmed Russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2890
Effective Range
1938 Mosin Nagant Carbine
Year Introduced 1938
Country Russia
Weight (lbs)
Barrel Length (inches)
Overall Length (inches)
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Blade front sight protected by hood . Tangent rear sight with V notch.
Cartridge 7.62 x 54 Rimmed Russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2890
Effective Range

1944 Mosin Nagant Carbine

This is the last of the Mosin Nagant designs. Features a permanently attached bayonet that folds against the side of the rifle.

1944 Mosin Nagant Carbine
Year Introduced 1944
Country Russia
Weight (lbs) 7.7
Barrel Length (inches) 20.4
Overall Length (inches) 40
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Blade front sight protected by hood . Tangent rear sight with V notch.
Cartridge 7.62 x 54 Rimmed Russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2890
Effective Range 400 yards

Japanese Arisaka Bolt Action Rifles

Type 38 Rifle

Type 38 Rifle
Year Introduced 1911
Country Japan
Weight (lbs) 9.3
Barrel Length (inches) 31.4
Overall Length (inches) 50.2
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Barley corn front sight with ears
Cartridge 6.5 x 50 mm Arisaka
Bullet Weight (grains) 139
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range 400 yards

The Type 38 rifle with the long barrel was adopted in 1911. The firearms action is based on the 98 Mauser. Safety differs from the 98 Mauser and the bolt cocks on closing.

Type 44 Carbine

Type 44 Carbine
Year Introduced 1911
Country Japan
Weight (lbs) 8.9
Barrel Length (inches) 19.2
Overall Length (inches) 38.5
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turnbolt
Sights Blade front sight
Cartridge 6.5 x 50 mm Arisaka
Bullet Weight (grains) 139
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range 400 yards

The Japanese Type 44 Carbine adopted in 1911 differs from other Arisaka rifles in that it has a permanently attached folding bayonet.

An oddball variant of Japanese military rifles is an Italian made weapon chambered in 6.5 Arisaka. It was assembled with a mannlicher carcano action and a mauser box type magazine. Unmarked The Italian arms factories were already tooled up to produce 6.5 millimeter barrels.

Switzerland

Swiss K-31 Schmidt Rubin

Well made straight-pull, bolt action rifle. Well balanced with fast sights. Though it was never tested in battle, it would have probably performed poorly in muddy conditions since debris around the breech will prevent the bolt from locking properly. The 7.5 Swiss cartridge is comparable to 308 Winchester in terms of power and accuracy. This gun would be a good gun for hunting deer in brush. It can be loaded with single cartridges or by using a special six round stripper clip. The metal rod projecting from beneath the barrel is a stacking rod. Manufactured from 1933 to 1958. Replaced by the SIG Sturmgewehr 57.

K-31 Schimdt Rubin
Year Introduced 1933
Country Switzerland
Weight (lbs) 8.83
Barrel Length (inches) 25.67
Barrel Twist 1 turn in 10.63 inches
Overall Length (inches) 43.5
Magazine Capacity 6
Action Type Straight pull bolt action
Sights Blade front with U notch open rear sight adjustable from 100 to 1500 meters
Cartridge 7.5 x 55 Swiss GP 11
Bullet Weight (grains) 174 grain
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2560
Effective Range 400 meters

Swiss Model 1911 Rifle

Swiss Model 1911 Rifle
Year Introduced 1911
Country Switzerland
Weight (lbs) 10.2
Barrel Length (inches) 30.7
Overall Length (inches) 51.6
Magazine Capacity 6
Action Type Bolt action straight pull
Sights Blade front sight , open rear tangent sight
Cartridge 7.5 x 55 Swiss GP 11
Bullet Weight (grains) 174
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2560
Effective Range 400

Century Arms imported a number Schmidt Rubin 1911 rifles that were rechambered to 308 winchester around 1968.

Swiss Model 1911 Carbine

M 1911 Carbine
Year Introduced 1911
M 1911 Carbine
Year Introduced 1911
Country Switzerland
Weight (lbs) 8.6
Barrel Length (inches) 23.3
Overall Length (inches) 43.4
Magazine Capacity 6
Action Type Straight pull bolt action
Sights Blade front sight , open rear tangent sight adjustable from 100-1500 meters
Cartridge 7.5 x 55 Swiss GP 11
Bullet Weight (grains) 174

M 1889 Schmidt Rubin Rifle

M1889 Schmidt Rubin
Year Introduced 1889
Country Switzerland
Weight (lbs) 8
Barrel Length (inches) 23.3
Overall Length (inches) 43
Magazine Capacity 12 round staggered box magazine
Action Type Bolt action Straight pull
Sights
Cartridge 7.5 Swiss 1889
Bullet Weight (grains) 190
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 1920
Effective Range (yards) 400
This rifle is not designed for use with the more modern GP11 Swiss cartridges.

FR8 Spanish Mauser (Fusil Reformado 8)

These are Model 1943 Spanish mausers based on the 98 Mauser Action. The orginal barrel has been replaced with a shorter one chambered for 7.62 NATO and a flash hider was added. These rifles are very sturdy but the short barrel and flash hider do make for a loud report when fired. The FR8 utilizes the same type of rifle sights at the CETME automatic rifle. The rear sight which is a rotating disc with 4 settings: 100 meters (open sight), 200, 300 and 400 meters (peep sights). The rifle appears to have been made to simulate the CETME rifle and I believe was used for basic marksmanship training.

FR8 Spanish Mauser
Year Introduced
Country Spain
Weight (lbs)
Barrel Length (inches) 17.75
Overall Length (inches) 38.7
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action - Turn Bolt
Sights Front post with hood, rear combination v notch and aperture sight
Cartridge 7.62 x 51 Nato
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2750
Effective Range 400 yards

Model 1916 Spanish Mauser

These rifles were manufactured by the Oviedo Arsenal in Spain and were the standard infantry weapon during the Spanish Civil War. Based on the 1893 Mauser action these rifles are fairly well made though often roughly finished. These guns will accept the standard 1893 Mauser bayonet and have a charger slot for use with 5 round stripper clips. Although the sights are nothing to write home about and there is no provision for mounting a scope, it's short length, light weight and powerful cartridge make it a satisfactory brush gun for deer. Many of these firearms have been imported into the United States, some in the original 7 mm Mauser and some that were rechambered to 7.62 Nato(308 Winchester) for use by Spain's Military Reserves. The latter rifles in 7.62 NATO were given the designation "Fusil Reformado 7" and are covered in more detail on the Surplus Arms Overview Page under the heading "Deciding Whether or not to Purchase a Surplus Firearm". Model 1916 Mausers made after 1928 will have a gas vent on the left side of the receiver. Recoil with full power loads can be quite stiff due to this rifle's light weight and steel butt plate. A slip on rubber butt pad would be a good investment when shooting one of these firearms.

1916 Short Rifle
Year Introduced 1916
Country Spain
Weight (lbs) 6.5
Barrel Length (inches) 21
Overall Length (inches) 40.9
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Barley corn front sight with ears, Tangent rear sight
Cartridge 7 x57 Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2650
Effective Range 400

FR7 - 1916 Short Rifle (Fusil Reformado 7)

FR7- 1916 Short Rifle rechambered to 7.62 x 51 mm Nato
Year Introduced
Country Spain
Weight (lbs) 6.5
Barrel Length (inches) 21
Overall Length (inches) 40.9
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Barley corn front sight with ears, Tangent rear sight
Cartridge 7.62 Nato
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2750
Effective Range (yards) 400

1893 Spanish Mauser

During the Spanish American War, Spanish soldiers fighting in Cuba used these so effectively that the United States replaced the newly adopted Krag Rifle with a Mauser variant a few years later. The major innovation in this rifle was probably the ability to use 5 round stripper clips to load the magazine rather than to fumble with individual cartridges.

1893 Spanish Mauser
Year Introduced 1893
Country Spain
Weight (lbs) 8.8
Barrel Length (inches) 29
Overall Length (inches) 49
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action Turn bolt
Sights
Cartridge 7 x 57mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains) 173
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2300
Effective Range 400 yards

1896 Swedish Mauser

Swedish Model 1896 Mauser
Year Introduced 1896
Country Sweden
Weight (lbs) 9
Barrel Length (inches) 29.1
Overall Length (inches) 49.5
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt action Turn bolt
Sights Tangent rear sight, Blade front sight
Cartridge 6.5 x 55 mm Swedish
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range (yards) 400

Self loading Rifles

FN M-1949

Engineered by Dieudonne Saive of Fabrique Nationale prior to WWII this was a well designed rifle but the cost of manufacture limited it's sales. The initial patents were filed in 1936 but the FN 49 was not produced until after WWII.

It was adopted by the Belgian Army in 1951 and was chambered for the U.S. 30-06 cartridge. FN manufactured rifles under contract to Luxembourg in 30-06, to Venezuala in 7mm Mauser, Egypt in 8mm Mauser and Argentina in 7.65 Argentinian Mauser

FN M 1949
Year Introduced 1949
Country Belgium
Weight (lbs) 9.5
Barrel Length (inches) 23.2
Overall Length (inches) 43.7
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Gas operated semiauto
Sights
Cartridge 30-06, 7mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps)
Effective Range (yards) 400

Egyptian Hakim Rifle

This semiauto rifle was a derivation of the Swedish AG42. It was used in the Arab-Israeli war in 1956 and the 6 day war in 1967. Egypt had been using the Mauser 98 in 8 x 57 mm and had large stock piles of that cartridge. The Hakim uses a direct Gas Impingement system, gas from the fired cartridge is channeled back through a tube to strike the bolt assembly directly rather than having a piston in a gas tube pushing the bolt assembly. This rifle has a muzzle brake which reduces the felt recoil and muzzle flash but it also increases the noise produced by the gun. Hakims have the reputation for being one of the loudest surplus rifles available. Another unusual feature is a gas valve that allows the Hakims to be tuned to different lots of ammunition. The safety is a lever at the back of the receiver. Push to the left it is set to fire to the right it is on safe To open action push forward on the dust cover and pull back. If the magazine is in place and unloaded, the bolt and dust cover will be held back.

To field strip the Hakim

  1. Make sure that the rifle is unloaded.
  2. The magazine release can be found behind the magazine.
  3. Remove the magazine from the rifle by pulling the retainer back and pushing the magazine release forward, then pulling down on the magazine itself.
  4. Place the bolt in the forward position.
  5. Move the safety lever to a position midway between safe and fire Lift up on the safety assembly and pull it from the rifle.
  6. Slide the dustcover off the rifle and remove the recoil spring.
  7. Pull back on the bolt carrier and slide it off the rifle.
  8. To Remove the bolt push the bolt face backward out of the action from the rifle by pushing on the bolt
Hakim
Year Introduced
Country Egypt
Weight (lbs) 10.5
Barrel Length (inches) 25.7
Overall Length (inches) 47.7
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Gas operated semiauto
Sights tangent rear sight adjustable from 100-1000 meters, hooded front post
Cartridge 8 mm Mauser
Bullet Weight (grains) 155
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2800
Effective Range 500 yards

The Egyptians also produced a reduced size version of the Hakim called the "Maddi" or the "Rashid". Chambered for the 7.62 x 39 round, it was soon superceded by the AK47.

SKS variants

The SKS is a well designed semiautomatic rifle that is easily disassembled and cleaned. Chambered for the 7.62x39 Russian cartridge, recoil is fairly mild.

While this was originally a Russian design, this rifle has been manufactured in many Warsaw pact countries as well as the Peoples Republic of China. In the USSR it was quickly supplanted by the AK47 although it was sent to a number of countries including Vietnam. The original design called for a permanently attached bayonet that folded under the barrel although this may be missing from rifles made for the American market. The magazine is fixed to the gun.

Cartridges may be loaded one at a time through the top of the magazine or with a ten round stripper clip. There are a wide variety of replacement parts, accessories and add-ons available.

SKS Carbine 45 (Simonov)

SKS Carbine 45
Year Introduced 1945
Country USSR
Weight (lbs) 8.5
Barrel Length (inches) 20.5
Overall Length (inches) 40.2
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Gas operated semiautomatic.
Sights Notched rear tangent sight with hooded front post
Cartridge 7.62 x 39 Russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 123
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2400
Effective Range (meters) 300

PRC Type 56 Carbine

Manufactured in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) these rifles have a spike type bayonet rather that a blade. Many of these rifles that have been manufactured solely for the American market will be missing the bayonet.

An important thing to note is that some SKS rifles imported from China had undersized sears which caused them to go full auto. Newly aquired Chinese SKS rifles should be tested by loading only two or three rounds in the magazine before firing to ensure that the sear is functioning properly and only one round is fired with each pull of the trigger. If the sear is undersized, it is fairly easy to find a replacement.

Yugoslavian Model 59/66

This model differs from most SKS rifles in that it is equiped with a gas cutoff valve in order to allow it to be used as a grenade launcher.

Model 59/66
Year Introduced
Country Yugoslavia
Weight (lbs) 9.4
Barrel Length (inches) 19.7
Overall Length (inches) 43.9
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Gas operated semiauto
Sights Notched rear tangent sight with hooded front post
Cartrige 7.62 x 39 russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 123
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2400
Effective Range (meters) 300

Field stripping and cleaning the SKS

  1. Pull back the bolt to ensure that there are no cartridges in the magazine or chamber.
  2. Open the magazine by moving the magazine catch back towards the buttstock. Allow the magazine and magazine follower to swing down.
  3. Pull back the bolt and allow it to go forward to the closed position.
  4. Using a coin or flat bladed screwdriver. Push up the receiver cover pin so that it is perpendicular to the gun.
  5. Place your hand behind the receiver cover and pull the receiver cover pin to the right. The recoil spring will push the receiver cover back.
  6. Pull off the receiver cover.
  7. Pull back the bolt and draw it out of the action.
  8. On the right hand side of the gun just forward of the front sight is the gas assembly lever. Push the lever up and gently pull the gas tube up and back.
  9. Remove the piston in the gas tube. Note : If you are cleaning the rifle you should use powder solvent clean the piston and the inside of the gas tube to ensure that the action functions properly.

Czech M52

Used only in Czechoslovakia. It was soon superseded by the SKS and AK-47. 10 round detachable magazine. Loaded using 5 round stripper clips or single rounds through the top of the magazine.

Some Czech M52 Rifles were rechambered to 7.62 x 39mm Russian. Redesignated as the Model 52/57, they functioned with mixed results.

Czech M52
Year Introduced 1952
Country Czechoslovakia
Weight (lbs) 9.8
Barrel Length (inches) 20.7
Overall Length (inches) 39.4
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Gas operated semiauto
Sights Hooded front blade with tangent rear sight
Cartridge 7.62 x 45
Bullet Weight (grains) 130
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2440
Effective Range 300 meters

U.S. Service Rifles

Krag Jorgensen Rifles

Adopted by the U.S. Army in 1892, it compared unfavorably with the Mauser rifles used by the Spanish troops during the Spanish American war in 1898.

This rifle is loaded by opening a gate on the right side of the rifle, which depresses the magazine follower. Up to five cartridges are placed in the opening with the bullets point toward the muzzle. Once the gate is closed the magazine follower will push them into position. Probably the main failing of the rifle was the design of the bolt with the single locking lug, which limits the chamber pressure that it can safely handle.

1898 Krag Jorgensen Rifle
Year Introduced 1892
Country U.S.A
Weight (lbs) 9.2
Barrel Length (inches) 30
Overall Length (inches) 49.1
Magazine Capacity 5
Action Type Bolt Action turn bolt
Sights Open rear adjustable for windage and elevation
Cartridge 30/40 Krag
Bullet Weight (grains) 220
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2000
Effective Range (meters) 300

U.S. M1 Garand

M1 Garand
Year Introduced 1936
Country U.S.A.
Weight (lbs) 9.5
Barrel Length (inches) 24
Overall Length (inches) 43.5
Magazine Capacity 8
Action Type Gas operated Semiautomatic
Sights Rear aperature Front Blade
Cartridge 30-06- M2
Bullet Weight (grains) 152
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2800
Effective Range (meters) 460

Garands use a special 8 round clip that is ejected from the magazine when the last round in the magazine is fired.

While it generally is not dangerous, the use of full power ammunition loaded with bullets heavier than 180 grains will shorten the service life of the parts due to excessive gas port pressures.

Johnson M1941 Rifle

This was a competing design with the M1 Garand, which lost out. As an infantry weapon, it showed a lot of promise and it was generally reliable but its design had some drawbacks.

It saw limited service with the Marines during World War II. Unlike the Garand, which is gas operated, the Johnson rifle was recoil operated which meant that it was important that the barrel weight be properly balanced for the firearm to operate correctly. A special bayonet had to be designed that was light enough for the rifle to operate reliably with the bayonet on.

Johnson M1941 Rifle
Year Introduced 1941
Country United States of America.
Weight (lbs) 9.5
Barrel Length (inches) 22
Overall Length (inches) 45.87
Magazine Capacity 10
Action Type Recoil Operated Semiautomatic
Sights Aperture rear sight Front blade with ears
Cartridge 30-06
Bullet Weight (grains) 152
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2800
Effective Range (meters) 460 meters

U.S. M1 Carbine

When issued during World War II, the M1 Carbine used a 15 round detachable magazine. A selective fire version of the carbine using a curved thirty round magazine was introduced during the Korean War as the M2 Carbine. It was found that the selective fire version of the carbine was prone to overheating and frequently jammed. Carbines were in use up to the early sixties and were often issued to South Vietamese forces during the Vietnam War.

Winchester M1 Carbine
Year Introduced
Country U.S.A.
Weight (lbs) 5.5
Barrel Length (inches) 18
Overall Length (inches) 35.5
Magazine Capacity 15 or 30 round detachable
Action Type Gas operated Semiauto
Sights Front blade with ears, rear aperture sight
Cartridge 30 M1 Carbine
Bullet Weight (grains) 108
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 1950
Effective Range (meters) 300 meters

U.S. M14 Rifle

The M14 is still is use within the U.S. Military by snipers, navy seals and some marine units in Afghanistan and Iraq. In production from 1957 to 1964 more than 1.4 million of these rifles were produced by TRW, Springfield Armory, Winchester and H&R. The original M14 was a selective fire weapon which has never made it on the U.S. market in quantity because it is considered a machine gun by the BATF. Surplus M14s rather than being sold had the receivers cut in half and the parts sold.

Rewelds

Beware there are many pitfalls in purchasing a used civilian M14. Some enterprising individuals and corporations rewelded demilled receivers with varying degrees of success. More often than not the halves would be from different guns and often the pieces used would be from two different manufacturers. Some re-welds are as strong as the original receiver but many more are misaligned with poor welds. Hahn Machine & Specialty Arms are two fairly well known re-welders that engaged in this practice.

M14
Year Introduced
Country U.S.A.
Weight (lbs) 11.3
Barrel Length (inches)
Overall Length (inches)
Magazine Capacity 20 round detachable
Action Type Gas operated Semiautomatic
Sights Aperature rear, Front blade
Cartridge 7.62 Nato
Bullet Weight (grains) 147
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2800
Effective Range (meters) 460

Federal Ordnance M14

Federal Ordnance deserves special mention since they manufactured more that 60,000 M14 type rifles from 1986 to 1992. The receivers they used were cast and machined rather than forged like the original M14. In the beginning U.S. Military Surplus parts were used, most coming from Israel. As the supply of American made GI parts dwindled, Chinese (Taiwan and PRC) parts were increasingly used and quality declined. Later rifles suffered from problems such as the operating rod coming loose or the locking lugs not engaging in the recesses on both sides of the receiver. What to look for if considering the purchase of a Fed Ord M14. Rifles having serial numbers below 9000 were put together using GI parts. These are generally pretty good. U.S. Made parts can be identified by numbers stamped in the parts and initials of the manufacturer. Chinese parts were generally unmarked.

Rifles assembled with Chinese parts particularly those from the Peoples Republic of China have a very bad reputation. Many of the parts used were dimensionally incorrect and were not interchangable with American made parts.. Federal Ordnance was located at 1443 Potrero Avenue South El Monte, CA 91733.

Miscellaneous Service Style Rifles

Beretta BM-62

This is a civilian version of the Italian BM59. It is a derivation of the M1 Garand utilizing a 20 round detachable magazine. The magazine latch is found to the rear of the magazine well and operates in the same manner as the M14.

Beretta BM-62
Action Type Gas operated Semiauto
Barrel Length (inches) 17.5
Barrel Twist 1 turn in 12 inches
Overall Length (inches) 38.5
Weight unloaded (lbs) 8.75
Cartridge 7.62 x 51 Nato
Cartridge Capacity 20 round detachable Magazine

FN FAL ( Fusil Automatique Legere)

FN FAL
Action Type Gas operated Semiauto
Barrel Length (inches) 21
Overall Length (inches) 41.5
Weight unloaded (lbs) 9.5
Cartridge 7.62 x 51 Nato
Cartridge Capacity 20 round detachable Magazine

AK-47 & AKM

Built to loose tolerances so that they will function under almost any conditions these rifles are not the most accurate in the world. In fact for some examples the effective range might be less than 200 yards. They are capable of being fired on full auto or semiauto. The AKM is similar in appearance to the AK-47 the main difference being that it has a stamped steel receiver rather than a machined one.

AK-47 & AKM Variants
Weight (lbs) 8.9
Barrel Length (inches) 250 yards
Overall Length (inches) 7.62 x 39 Russian
Magazine Capacity 30
Action Type Overall length -
Sights Weight - empty - lbs
Cartridge 7.62 x 39 Russian
Bullet Weight (grains) 123
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 2330
Effective Range (Meters) 250 yards

Uses 30 round detachable magazines although other sizes are available as well as drums with a 75 round capacity

AK-74

Impressed with the M16 and its lighter ammunition, the Soviet Union developed a new cartridge using their standard 7.62 x 39 case necked down to accept a small diameter bullet. The AK 74 is similar in appearance and operation to the AK47 except that the Warsaw Pact magazines are made of a brownish orange phenolic resin rather that blued steel.

AK-74
Year Introduced 1974
Country Barrel Length - inches
Weight (lbs) 7.3
Barrel Length (inches) 250
Overall Length (inches) 5.45 x 39 Russian
Magazine Capacity 30 or 40 round detachable magazine
Action Type
Sights
Cartridge 5.45 x 39 Russian
Bullet Weight (grains)
Muzzle Velocity (fps) 3000
Effective Range (Meters) 250

MAK-90

Imported to the U.S. between 1990 to 1995. The MAK-90 is a semiautomatic only copy of the AKM made in the Peoples Republic of China. The shoulder stock is of a thumbhole design in order to meet ATF importation regulations at the time. They came with a 5 round detatchable magazine but will accept standard AK-47 magazines.

CETME C

Standard issue rifle for the Spanish Military The rear sight is disc with 4 settings: 100 meters (open sight), 200, 300 and 400 meters (peep sights). This same sighting system is replicated on Spanish Fr8. Designed by a german engineer, named Dr. Ludwig Vorgrimmler, Vorgrimmler was employed by Mauser during world war II, where he was involved in the design of the Sturmgewehr 44. After the war he fled Germany to Spain, the only remaining fascist power. The CETME suffered from extraction problems when first introduced. These were largely corrected by fluting the chamber, which allowed powder gases to leak around the cartridge case in the neck and shoulder aiding in cartridge extraction. Cartriged cases fired from one of these rifles will have rather distinctive lines or marks on the outside of the case as a result.

This design is also the basis for the West German G3. CENTME (Centro de Estudios Tecnicos de Materiales Especiales)

Universal Carbine

This civilian version of the M1 Carbine was an attempt to improve upon the M1 Carbine and to make it cheaper to produce. Its design differs from the military carbines in that it uses an aluminum alloy trigger assembly and two smaller recoil springs rather than the standard larger spring on the military carbine. Unfortunately, this means that most of the important parts are not interchangeable with the standard M1 carbine and since the company is no longer in business, parts are almost impossible to find. Probably the most frequent part to break is the stamped sheet steel operating slide where there is a cutout is for the bolt . This frequently happens when the gun is fired in very cold weather. Sometimes it is possible to have the piece welded back together but finding a replacement slide is almost impossible. They have little collector value.

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